Mutations in beta catenin (CTNNB1) are seen in about 90% of adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas and mutations in BRAF (V600E) in papillary craniopharyngiomas. Adamantinomatous and papillary craniopharyngiomas have been shown to carry clonal mutations that are typically mutually exclusive but may occasionally coexist. These findings indicate that the adamantinomatous and papillary subtypes have distinct molecular underpinnings, each principally driven by mutations in a single well-established oncogene – CTNNB1 in the adamantinomatous form and BRAF in the papillary form, independent of age. This may have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of these tumors. Treatment with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib has been reported to result in disease stabilization in a patient with a papillary craniopharyngioma with a BRAF V600E mutation.