|Amino Acid Change||G469A|
|Transcript ID (GRCh37/hg19)||ENST00000288602|
|Tumor Type||Primary Site|
Somatic mutations in BRAF have been found in 1–4% of all NSCLC most of which are adenocarcinomas. The G469A mutation results in an amino acid substitution at position 469 in BRAF, occurs within the highly conserved motif of the kinase domain. Most mutant BRAF proteins, such as G469A, have increased kinase activity and are transforming in vitro. In preclinical studies, lung cancer cell lines harboring the BRAF G469A mutation were not sensitive to dasatinib
BRAF is a member of the RAF-family of kinases which plays an important role in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK mitotic signaling pathway. Approximately 8–15% of colorectal cancer (CRC) harbors BRAF mutations. BRAF G469A mutation in exon 11 is infrequent in CRC and occurs within the kinase domain. The presence of BRAF mutation is significantly associated with right-sided colon cancers and is associated with decreased overall survival. BRAF mutation in a microsatellite unstable colorectal carcinoma indicates that the tumor is probably sporadic and not associated with Lynch syndrome (HNPCC). However, if a BRAF mutation is not detected, the tumor may either be sporadic or Lynch syndrome associated. Detection of BRAF mutations may also be useful in determining patient eligibility for anti-EGFR treatment. Some studies have reported that patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) that harbor BRAF mutations do not respond to anti-EGFR antibody agents (cetuximab or panitumumab) in the chemotherapy-refractory setting. Results should be interpreted in conjunction with other laboratory and clinical findings.
BRAF is a member of the RAF-family of kinases which plays an important role in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK mitotic signaling pathway. Approximately 10% of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas harbor somatic mutations in BRAF. The G469A mutation in exon 11 results in an amino acid substitution at position 469 in BRAF, which occurs in the highly conserved motif of the kinase domain. Most mutant BRAF proteins, such as G469A, have increased kinase activity and are transforming in vitro. Though BRAF mutations and targeted therapies have been have been studied in other solid tumors, the predicative and prognostic significant in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is unclear and needs to be further investigated.